Randomized root finding over finite fieldsusing tangent Graeffe transforms

 Bruno Grenet

 Laboratoire d'informatique, de robotique et de microélectronique de Montpellier LIRMM, UMR 5506 CNRS, CC477 Université Montpellier 2 161, rue Ada 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France

 bruno.grenet@lirmm.fr

 Joris van der Hoeven, Grégoire Lecerf

 Laboratoire d'informatique de l'École polytechnique LIX, UMR 7161 CNRS Campus de l'École polytechnique 1, rue Honoré d'Estienne d'Orves Bâtiment Alan Turing, CS35003 91120 Palaiseau, France

 {vdhoeven,lecerf}@lix.polytechnique.fr

 Version of January 16, 2015

## Abstract

Consider a finite field whose multiplicative group has smooth cardinality. We study the problem of computing all roots of a polynomial that splits over , which was one of the bottlenecks for fast sparse interpolation in practice. We revisit and slightly improve existing algorithms and then present new randomized ones based on the Graeffe transform. We report on our implementation in the Mathemagix computer algebra system, confirming that our ideas gain by an order of magnitude in practice.

### Categories and Subject Descriptors

F.2.1 [ANALYSIS OF ALGORITHMS AND PROBLEM COMPLEXITY]: Numerical Algorithms and Problems–Computations in finite fields; G.4 [MATHEMATICAL SOFTWARE]: Algorithm design and analysis

### General Terms

Algorithms, Theory

### Keywords

Finite fields, polynomial root finding, algorithm, Mathemagix

## 1.Introduction

Let represent the finite field with elements, where is a prime number, and . Throughout this article, such a field is supposed to be described as a quotient of by a monic irreducible polynomial. Let represent a separable monic polynomial of degree which splits over , which means that all its irreducible factors have degree one and multiplicity one. In this article we are interested in computing all the roots of .

### 1.1Motivation

One of our interests in root finding came from the recent design of efficient algorithms to interpolate, into the standard monomial basis, polynomials that are given through evaluation functions. This task is briefly called sparse interpolation, and root finding often turns out to be a bottleneck, as reported in [19]. In fact, in this case, the ground field can be chosen to be with , and where is taken to be much larger than the number of terms to be discovered. In practice, to minimize the size of , so that it fits a machine register, we take as small as possible. A typical example is . We informally refer to such primes as FFT primes.

Root finding over prime finite fields critically occurs during the computation of integer and rational roots of polynomials in , both for dense and lacunary representations. Yet other applications concern cryptography and error correcting codes. Nevertheless, practical root finding has received only moderate attention so far, existing algorithms with good average complexity bounds often being sufficient [20, 21].

In this article, we focus on fast probabilistic root finding algorithms, targeting primarily FFT prime fields and, more generally, finite fields whose multiplicative group has smooth cardinality. At a second stage, we report on practical efficiency of our new algorithms within the Mathemagix computer algebra system [18].

### 1.2Notations and prerequisites

The multiplicative group of is written . In order to simplify the presentation of complexity bounds, we use the soft-Oh notation: means that (we refer the reader to [11, Chapter 25, Section 7] for technical details). The least integer larger or equal to is written . The largest integer smaller or equal to is written . The remainder of in the division by is denoted by .

We write for a function that bounds the total cost of a polynomial product algorithm in terms of the number of ring operations performed independently of the coefficient ring, assuming a unity is available. In other words, two polynomials of degrees at most over such a ring can be multiplied with at most arithmetic operations in . The schoolbook algorithm allows us to take . On the other hand the fastest known algorithm, due to Cantor and Kaltofen [7], provides us with . In order to simplify the cost analysis of our algorithms we make the customary assumption that for all . Notice that this assumption implies the super-additivity of , namely for all and .

For operations in and in finite fields, we are interested in the Turing machine model, with a sufficiently large number of tapes. In short, we use the terms bit-cost and bit-complexity to refer to this model whenever the context is not clear. For randomized algorithms, we endow Turing machines with an additional instruction which generates random bits with a uniform distribution [28].

We write for a function that bounds the bit-cost of an algorithm which multiplies two integers of bit-sizes at most , viewed in classical binary representation. Recently, the best bound for has been improved to , where represents the iterated logarithm function [16]. Again, we make the customary assumption that for all . We freely use the following classical facts: ring operations in cost and one division or inversion in costs [11, Chapter 11].

For polynomial operations over , we let represent a function that bounds the bit-cost of an algorithm that multiplies two polynomials of degrees at most , with the same kind of assumptions as for and . According to [17], we may take . The ring operations in cost at most , and inversions take at most . For convenience, and will respectively denote cost functions for the product and the inverse in .

Let us recall that the gcd of two polynomials of degrees at most over can be computed in time : One can for instance use pseudo-remainders in [11, Algorithm 11.4], mutatis mutandis. Given monic polynomials and with and , all the remainders can be computed in time using a subproduct tree [11, Chapter 10]. The inverse problem, called Chinese remaindering, can be solved within a similar cost .

In this article, when needed, we consider that the factorization of and a primitive element of have been precomputed once, and we discard the necessary underlying costs. In practice, if the factorization of is given, then it is straightforward to verify whether a given element is primitive. For known complexity bounds and historical details on these tasks, we refer the reader to [1, 26, 31].

### 1.3Related work and our contributions

Seminal algorithms for polynomial factorization over finite fields are classically attributed to Berlekamp [2, 3], and Cantor and Zassenhaus [8], but central earlier ideas can be found in works of Gauss, Galois, Arwins, Faddeev and Skopin. Cantor–Zassenhaus' algorithm is randomized and well suited to compute roots of polynomials of degree that split over in average time . Of course, if then an exhaustive search can be naively performed in time (the factor can be discarded if a primitive element of is given, by means of [6, Proposition 3]), so that the cost of root finding simplifies to . This classical approach is for instance implemented in the NTL library written by Shoup [32]. However neither Berlekamp's nor Cantor–Zassenhaus' algorithm seems to benefit of particular prime numbers such as FFT primes. Instead, alternative approaches have been proposed by Moenck [25], von zur Gathen [10], Mignotte and Schnorr [24], and then by Rónyai [29].

In Section 2, for the sake of comparison, we first revisit Cantor–Zassenhaus' approach and propose a practical trick to slightly speed it up. We also briefly recall the complexity bound of Mignotte–Schnorr's algorithm [24].

We then design and analyze fast randomized algorithms based on tangent Graeffe transforms, leading to an important speed-up for FFT primes. The practical efficiency of the new algorithms is discussed on the basis of implementations in the Mathemagix computer algebra system [18], thus revealing that our fastest variant gains an order of magnitude over other existing software.

Let us finally mention that our present randomized algorithms admit deterministic counterparts which are studied in [14].

## 2.Known algorithms revisted

In this section we revisit efficient root finding algorithms previously described in the literature, and slightly improve their complexity analysis. The first stream, followed by Berlekamp [3], Cantor and Zassenhaus [8], consists in splitting the input polynomial by computing suitable modular exponentiations and gcds. The second stream, followed by Moenck [25], and Mignotte and Schnorr [24], takes advantage of the smoothness of .

### 2.1Cantor–Zassenhaus' algorithm

In this subsection we suppose that has the form , with . The following randomized algorithm extends Cantor–Zassenhaus' one, which corresponds to , when is odd. We need a primitive root of unity of order .

Randomized algorithm 1.

Input
of degree , monic, separable, which splits over , and such that ; a primitive root of unity of order .

Output

The roots of .

1. If then compute the roots of by calling a fallback root finding algorithm.

2. Pick up at random of degree at most .

3. Compute , and set .

4. For all from to , compute , make it monic, and replace by .

5. Recursively call the algorithm with those of which are not constant, and return the union of the sets of their roots.

In the classical case when , then we recall that step 3 costs and step 4 takes plus one inversion in . Since the average depth of the recursion is in [9], the total average cost amounts to .

For the case of arbitrary , we propose an informal discussion, so as to justify the interest in the algorithm. If is a root of , then has order dividing , hence is a power of , or zero with a very small probability. Therefore we have . Since is taken at random, we might expect that the values of are distributed uniformly among the powers of (we discard cases when ). In other words, the depth of the recursive calls is expected to be in .

If we further assume that , then step 3 takes approximately for a certain constant , and step 4 costs . Discarding the cost of the inversions, and compared to the case , we achieve an approximate speed-up of

Whenever , this speed-up is of order . In general, the speed-up is maximal if .

### 2.2Mignotte–Schnorr's algorithm

Assuming given a primitive element of , Mignotte and Schnorr proposed a general deterministic root finding algorithm in [24], that is efficient when is smooth. For a fair comparison with our new algorithm presented in the next section (and since their article is written in French) we recall their method in a different and concise manner.

Let be integers , such that , and let and . For instance, if the irreducible factorization of is known, then we may take and , , …, and set . In order to split into factors of degrees at most , we may use the following algorithm.

Algorithm 2.

Input
of degree , monic, separable, which splits over , and such that ; a primitive root of unity of order .

Output

in such that , and the are monic, separable, and divide , for all .

1. Let , and

compute , for all .

2. Initialize with the list .

3. For from down to do

1. Compute for all pairs in using a subproduct tree.

2. Initialize with the empty list, and for all from to do

For each pair in do

Compute .

If is not constant, then make it monic and append to .

Let .

Return .

Lemma 3. Algorithm 2 is correct and executes in time .

Proof. We prove the correctness by descending induction on from down to . In fact, at the end of iteration of the loop of step 3, we claim that , that divides for all , and that the integers in are divisible by and bounded by . By construction, these properties are all true with when entering step 3, so that by induction we can assume that these properties hold for when entering the loop at level . Let , and let be a root of . From , since is divisible by , there exists such that . We are done with the correctness.

As to the complexity, we can compute the for in time as follows: we first compute , and , and then deduce each by multiplying and .

Step 1 requires time . In step 3.a, since the sum of the degrees of the polynomials in is at most , and since these polynomials are monic, this step can be done in time . The cost of the gcds in step 3.b is by the super-additivity of . We compute all the in time , and then all the and by means of operations in . Deducing all the takes additional products in .

Since the cardinality of cannot exceed , the total number of proper factors in step 3.b is at most . Therefore, we need inversions in order to make all the polynomials in monic.

Notice that the dependence on is good when is smooth. For example, if and , then the cost of root finding via the latter proposition drops to . This is higher than the average bit-cost of Cantor–Zassenhaus' algorithm. Nevertheless since the term corresponds to products in , with a small constant hidden in the , Mignotte–Schnorr's algorithm is competitive for small values of .

In the original work of Mignotte and Schnorr [24], the cost of the algorithm was estimated to operations in , if . Our presentation slightly differs by the use of a subproduct tree in step 3.a.

Let us briefly mention that a better bound for splitting was achieved in [10]. Nevertheless, for finding all the roots, the method of [10] does not seem competitive in general.

### 2.3Moenck's algorithm

Moenck's algorithm [25] deals with the special case when . Let be a primitive root of . Let , let be a polynomial whose roots have orders dividing , and let be one of these roots. Then either this order divides , or we have , since . In the latter case, we obtain . The polynomials and have all their roots of order dividing . In this way, the roots of can be computed inductively starting from down to . At the end, we are reduced to finding roots of several polynomials whose orders divide . If is small, then an exhaustive search easily completes the computations. Otherwise we may use a fallback algorithm. Moenck's algorithm summarizes as follows.

Algorithm 4.

Input
of degree , monic, separable, which splits over , and such that ; a primitive element of .

Output

in such that, the are monic, separable, and the roots of have orders dividing .

1. Compute for all .

2. Initialize with the list .

3. For from down to do

1. Compute the remainders of for all triples in using a subproduct tree.

2. Initialize as an empty list.

3. For all in do

1. Compute . If is not constant then make it monic and append to .

2. Compute . If is not constant then make it monic, and append to .

4. Replace by .

4. Return .

Our presentation differs from [25]. We also introduced step 3.a, which yields a sensible theoretical speed-up, similarly to Mignotte–Schnorr's algorithm. In fact Moenck's and Mignotte–Schnorr's algorithms are quite similar from the point of view of the successive splittings of , and the intermediate operations. We thus leave out the details on correctness and cost analysis. As an advantage, the logarithms of the successive roots are not needed. Nevertheless computing all the powers of in steps 3.c amounts to a bit-cost .

## 3.Using Graeffe transforms

One advantage of Cantor–Zassenhaus' algorithm is its average depth in the recursive calls in . This is to be compared to the iterations of Algorithms 2 and 4. In this section we propose a new kind of root finder based on the tangent Graeffe transform, which takes advantage of a FFT prime field, with an average cost not exceeding the one of Cantor–Zassenhaus.

### 3.1Generalized Graeffe transforms

Classically, the Graeffe transform of a polynomial of degree is the unique polynomial satisfying . If , then . This construction can be extended to higher orders as follows: the generalized Graeffe transform of of order , written , is defined as the resultant

If , then . Equivalently, is the characteristic polynomial of multiplication by in (up to the sign). For our root finding algorithms, the most important case is when is smooth and the order of the generalized Graeffe transform divides .

Proposition 5. Let be integers , such that divides , and let be given primitive roots of unity of orders , for all . If is a monic polynomial in of degree , then the generalized Graeffe transforms of orders of can be computed in time or , where and .

Proof. Writing in an algebraic closure of , the Graeffe transform of of order is . Consequently this leads to . Using the latter formula, by Lemma 6 below, the transform can be obtained in time . Taking the sum over concludes the proof.

Lemma 6. Let be a polynomial of degree in , let , and let be an integer. Then the product can be computed in time .

Proof. Let . If is even, then we have , otherwise we have . These formulas lead to an algorithm with the claimed cost.

Let us mention that good complexity bounds for Graeffe transforms for general finite fields can be found in [14].

### 3.2Tangent Graeffe transforms

Introducing a formal parameter with , we define the generalized tangent Graeffe transform of of order as being . For any ring , computations with “tangent numbers” in can be done with constant overhead with respect to computations in (in the FFT model, the overhead is asymptotically limited to a factor of two). Whenever a Graeffe transform preserves the number of distinct simple roots, the tangent Graeffe transform can be used to directly recover the original simple roots from the transformed polynomial, as follows:

Lemma 7. Let be separable of degree , let be coprime to , and let . A nonzero root of h is simple if, and only if, . For such a root, is the unique root of such that .

Proof. Let be a root of in an algebraic closure of . The lemma follows from the formula , obtained by direct calculation.

In the context of the Graeffe method, the tangent transform is classical (for instance, see [23, 27] for history, references, and use in numerical algorithms). The generalized tangent Graeffe transform can also be seen as the tangent characteristic polynomial of modulo , and this construction is often attributed to Kronecker in algebraic geometry [22].

### 3.3Overview of our methods

Let us write . Let , and let , …, be the Graeffe transforms of orders , , …, of . The roots of are to be found among the elements of order . One may then find the roots of among the -th roots of the roots of , and, by induction, the roots of are to be found among the -th roots of the roots of . This is the starting point of the efficient deterministic algorithm designed in [14]. But in order to make it much more efficient than Cantor–Zassenhaus's algorithm we introduce and analyze two types of randomizations in the next sections. First we avoid computing -th roots by combining random variable shifts and tangent transforms. Second we analyze the behaviour for random polynomials, which leads us to a very efficient heuristic algorithm.

### 3.4A randomized algorithm

Our randomized algorithms can be competitive to Cantor–Zassenhaus' algorithm only for very smooth values of . For simplicity we focus on the important case of an FFT field where , with .

We introduce the parameter . Let be a divisor of , and let . Let denote the roots of . The Graeffe transform of of order equals .

Given a pair of distinct roots and of , we have for all but at most values of . Therefore for all but at most values of , the polynomial has no multiple root. Considering that is taken uniformly at random in , the probability that has multiple roots is at most . This yields the following randomized algorithm.

Randomized algorithm 8.

Input
of degree , monic, separable, which splits over , and such that ; a primitive root of .

Output

The roots of .

1. If then set to . Otherwise set to the largest integer in such that . Compute and .

2. Pick uniformly at random, and compute , where .

3. Recursively compute the Graeffe transform of order of , for all .

4. Compute the list of -logarithms of the roots of .

5. For from down to do

1. Replace by the concatenation of for .

2. If has cardinality more than then remove the elements from such that .

6. If then return .

7. Compute .

8. Compute .

Add to if .

9. Compute .

10. Compute recursively the roots of .

11. Return .

Proposition 9. Algorithm 8 is correct, and takes an average time , if and with .

Proof. The correctness follows from Lemma 7, which asserts that is a subset of the roots of .

Step 3 takes by Proposition 5. Steps 2, 5.a, 5.b, 6, 7, 8, 9 execute in time . Step 4 costs . If then the number of iterations in step 5 is . Otherwise the number of iterations is . Consequently, the total cost of all steps but step 10 is . From the choice of , we have already seen that the degree of equals with probability at least . Writing for the average execution time, we thus have , which implies .

Since the base field supports FFTs it is important to perform all intermediate computations by taking advantage of sharing transforms. This technique was popularized within the NTL library for many algorithms. In addition we notice that the first few iterates of the loop of step 5 can be reduced to direct FFT computations instead of generic multi-point evaluations.

### 3.5Random polynomials which split over

Taking a monic random polynomial of degree which splits over , for a uniform distribution, is equivalent to taking its roots at random in . Let represent the roots of . We examine the behavior of tangent Graeffe transforms of such random polynomials.

Let be the number of monic polynomials of degree which split over and have distinct nonzero roots of order dividing . Such a polynomial uniquely corresponds to the choice of distinct values among , namely the roots, and then of the multiplicities of these roots with sum . Therefore we have . One can check that , which corresponds to choosing a multiplicity in for each element of order dividing , under the constraint that the sum of the multiplicities is exactly . The average number of roots of such polynomials is

The latter formulas are direct consequences of the classical Chu–Vandermonde identity. Assuming that , the average number of distinct roots is at least . When is much greater than then this lower bound is getting close to .

Proposition 10. Let be a fixed divisor of , and let . Let be a monic separable polynomial of degree , which splits over , and such that . Let be the Graeffe transform of of order . The average number of simple roots of over all such polynomials endowed with a uniform distribution is at least .

Moreover, assuming that the probability that has at least simple roots is at least .

Proof. The polynomial is uniformly distributed in the set of monic polynomials with roots of order . Let and be the respective numbers of simple and multiple roots of , so that . We have just seen that the average number of distinct roots of is at least . Hence, and .

Setting and assuming that , so that , let be the probability that has less than simple roots. Then the average number of roots is at most , whence . We conclude that .

### 3.6A heuristic randomized algorithm

Let be a divisor of , and consider a polynomial of degree . In Section 3.4, we have shown that for all but at most values of , the Graeffe transform of order of has no multiple root. Taking , this implies that has no multiple roots with probability at least , when picking at random. Now Proposition 10 implies that at least one third of the roots remain simple with probability at least under the weaker condition that and for random . It is an interesting question whether this fact actually holds for any if is randomly chosen:

Heuristic. Let with and let be a monic, separable polynomial of degree which splits over . Then there exist at least elements such that the Graeffe transform of order of has at least simple roots.

From now on, assume that is picked at random or that the above heuristic holds and is chosen at random. Taking , we may then find the roots of by computing a few discrete Fourier transforms of length , instead of more expensive multi-point evaluations. Using tangent Graeffe transforms, the simple roots can be lifted back for almost no cost. These considerations lead to the following efficient randomized algorithm.

Randomized algorithm 11.

Input
of degree , monic, separable, which splits over , and such that ; a primitive element of .

Output

The roots of .

1. If then evaluate on all the elements of , and return the roots.

2. Otherwise set to be the largest integer in such that . Compute and .

3. Pick a random in , and compute the Graeffe transform of order of with .

4. Compute , , .

5. Compute . Add to if .

6. Compute .

7. Compute recursively the roots of .

8. Return .

Proposition 12. Assume the heuristic or that is chosen at random among the monic, separable polynomials with and which split over . Then Algorithm 11 takes an average time , whenever and with .

Proof. Of course if then the cost is . Now suppose we arrive in step 2. The roots of have order dividing , and we have . If the algorithm terminates then it is correct by the same arguments as for Algorithm 8.

The cost of step 3 is bounded by (and even by if according to [4, Chapter 1, Section 2]). When computing using tangent Graeffe transforms of order , the cost of step 3 is bounded by . Steps 4 and 5 can be done in time . The average execution time thus satisfies

where is the probability that contains more than elements in step 7. It follows that , whence .

The main bottleneck for Algorithm 11 is step 3. It would be possible to improve our complexity bound if a better algorithm were known to compute Graeffe transforms of order . In the FFT model, the tangent Graeffe transform of a polynomial of degree can be computed in time . In practice, this means that the asymptotic complexity of Algorithm 11 is equivalent to .

In order to reduce the cost of the Graeffe transforms, it is relevant to choose such that for some small , which is to be determined in practice as a function of and . In this way more time is spent in multi-point evaluations. For the multi-point evaluations in step 4, one may use FFTs of size for small values of , or appeal to Bluestein's chirp transform [5].

## 4.Timings

In this section we report on timings for the algorithms presented above. We use a platform equipped with an Intel CoreTM i7-4770 CPU at 3.40 GHz, and 8 GB of 1600 MHz DDR3. It runs the Jessie GNU Debian operating system with a Linux kernel version 3.14 in 64 bit mode. We compile with GCC [12] version 4.9.1.

We use revision 9738 of Mathemagix. For the sake of comparison to other software, we installed the NTL library version 8.0.0 [32] (configured to benefit from GMP [13] version 6.0.0), and Flint version 2.4.4 [15]. For our benchmark family we simply build polynomials of degree from random pairwise distinct roots.

Table 1 shows timings for the FFT prime field with . The row NTL corresponds to the function FindRoots, which contains an optimization with respect to Algorithm 1 with : in fact, the polynomials in step are taken of degree (see [30] for details). We implemented the same optimization in our versions of Cantor–Zassenhaus in Mathemagix. The row Flint corresponds to the function nmod_poly_factor_equal_deg, that does not take advantage of this optimization, which mainly explains a loss of efficiency. The rows “Alg. 1” to “Alg. 11” correspond to our own implementations in Mathemagix of the above algorithms (see files algebramix/polynomial_modular_int.hpp and algebramix/bench/polynomial_modular_int_bench.cpp). Our modified version of Cantor–Zassenhaus' algorithm, with , does not reveal to be of practical interest for this prime size.

Concerning the deterministic algorithms, let us precise that we take and in Algorithm 2. In addition, in our implementation of Algorithm 4, when and are small, for efficiency reasons, we compute using binary powering instead of simultaneous remainders. These deterministic methods turn out to be quite competitive.

Our Table 2 is similar to Table 1 for the FFT prime field with . Nevertheless NTL does not support this larger prime within its type zz_p. This larger prime starts to reveal the interest in our modified version of Cantor–Zassenhaus with . The speed-up measured with the modified version even more increases with larger primes: With , it reaches a factor 1.6 in size .

Using Graeffe transforms as in Algorithm 8 is not very competitive. However, in final, it is satisfactory to observe that our Algorithm 11, exploiting the tangent transform, gains by an order of magnitude over other existing methods in both tables.

 NTL 0.0065 0.015 0.037 0.090 0.20 0.48 1.1 2.5 5.4 12 26 Flint 0.0093 0.025 0.065 0.17 0.45 1.2 3.0 8.0 22 63 250 Alg. 1, Cantor–Zassenhaus, 0.010 0.020 0.043 0.092 0.20 0.42 0.90 1.9 4.0 8.6 18 Alg. 1, Cantor–Zassenhaus, modified 0.009 0.018 0.036 0.091 0.20 0.41 0.96 2.1 4.4 10 22 Alg. 2, Mignotte–Schnorr 0.063 0.12 0.25 0.51 1.0 2.0 3.9 7.8 15 31 62 Alg. 4, Moenck 0.025 0.051 0.10 0.21 0.44 0.91 1.9 3.9 8.2 17 35 Alg. 8, Graeffe, randomized 0.003 0.006 0.021 0.074 0.25 0.70 1.7 3.6 7.5 15 29 Alg. 11, Graeffe, heuristic 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.007 0.015 0.031 0.065 0.13 0.24 0.59 1.4

Table 1. Randomized root finding in degree over , with , time in seconds.

 Flint 0.032 0.084 0.22 0.58 1.5 3.8 9.5 23 58 150 470 Alg. 1, Cantor–Zassenhaus, 0.035 0.075 0.16 0.37 0.78 1.7 3.8 8.6 19 41 90 Alg. 1, Cantor–Zassenhaus, modified 0.025 0.055 0.11 0.28 0.63 1.3 3.1 7.0 14 33 76 Alg. 2, Mignotte–Schnorr 0.22 0.46 0.96 2.0 4.2 8.7 18 39 83 180 370 Alg. 4, Moenck 0.89 0.18 0.37 0.76 1.6 3.4 7.2 16 33 72 150 Alg. 8, Graeffe, randomized 0.011 0.038 0.14 0.56 1.1 2.6 6.8 16 40 92 210 Alg. 11, Graeffe, heuristic 0.005 0.007 0.016 0.032 0.067 0.14 0.29 0.61 1.3 2.7 5.6

Table 2. Randomized root finding in degree over , with , time in seconds.

Coming back to our initial motivation for sparse polynomial interpolation, let us mention that plugging Algorithm 11 into our implementations reported in [19] leads to quite good speed-ups. The total time for Example 1 of [19], concerning the product of random sparse polynomials, decreases from 12 s to 7.6 s with the “coefficient ratios” technique. In fact, the time spent in root finding decreases from 50 % to 8 % during the sole determination of the support.

Example 2 of [19] concerns the sparse interpolation of the determinant of the generic matrix. For , the time for the “Kronecker substitution” technique with a prime of 68 bits decreases from 95 s to 43 s. The time elapsed in root finding during the sole determination of the support drops from 70 % to 20 %. Thanks to additional optimizations, the “coefficient ratios” technique now runs this example in s.

##### Acknowledgements

Bruno Grenet was partially supported by a LIX–Qualcomm–Carnot postdoctoral fellowship.

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