
bit operations. In particular, if is large compared to , say , then the complexity is only .
Keywords: matrix multiplication, complexity, algorithm, FFT, Bluestein reduction
A.C.M. subject classification: G.1.0 Computerarithmetic
In this paper we study the complexity of multiplying matrices whose entries are integers with at most bits. We are particularly interested in the case that is very large compared to , say . All complexity bounds refer to deterministic bit complexity, in the sense of the multitape Turing model [Pap94].
Matrices with large integer coefficients appear naturally in several areas. One first application is to the efficient high precision evaluation of socalled holonomic functions (such as exp, log, sin, Bessel functions, and hypergeometric functions) using a divide and conquer technique [CC90, HP97, Hoe99, Hoe01, Hoe07]. Another application concerns recent algorithms for computing the series of algebraic curves [Har14, HS14]. The practical running time in these applications is dominated by the multiplication of matrices with large integer entries, and it is vital to have a highly efficient implementation of this fundamental operation. Typical parameters for these applications are around bits, and around 10.
In this paper, we focus mainly on theoretical bounds. We write for the cost of the matrix multiplication, and for the cost of multiplying bit integers. We will also write for the algebraic complexity of multiplying matrices whose entries are polynomials of degrees over an abstract effective ring , and .
Schönhage and Strassen [SS71] used fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) to prove that for large . Fürer [Für09] improved this to where is the iterated logarithm, i.e.,
and this was recently sharpened to [HHL14a]. The best currently known bound [CK91] for is ; if is a ring of finite characteristic this may be improved to [HHL14b].
The algebraic complexity of matrix multiplication is usually assumed to be of the form , where is a socalled exponent of matrix multiplication [vzGG03, Ch. 12]. Classical matrix multiplication yields , and Strassen's algorithm [Str69] achieves . The best currently known exponent was found by Le Gall [Gal14, CW87].
When working over the integers and taking into account the growth of coefficients, the general bound for matrix multiplication specialises to
Throughout this paper we will enforce the very mild restriction that . Under this assumption the above bound simplifies to
The main result of this paper is the following improvement.
Theorem
uniformly for all , with .
In particular, if is large compared to , say , then (1) simplifies to
This bound is essentially optimal (up to constant factors), in the sense that we cannot expect to do better for , and the bound grows proportionally to the input and output size as a function of .
The new algorithm has its roots in studies of analogous problems in the algebraic complexity setting. When working over an arbitrary effective ring , a classical technique for multiplying polynomial matrices is to use an evaluationinterpolation scheme. There are many different evaluationinterpolation strategies [Hoe10, Sections 2.1–2.3] such as Karatsuba, Toom–Cook, FFT, Schönhage–Strassen and general multipoint. The efficiency of a particular evaluationinterpolation strategy can be expressed in terms of two quantities: the complexity of evaluation/interpolation and the number of evaluation points. In terms of these quantities, we have
(3) 
If admits many primitive th roots of unity, then the FFT provides an efficient evaluationinterpolation strategy that achieves and . Moreover, when using the TFT [Hoe04], one may take , which is optimal. If is a field of characteristic zero, or a finite field with sufficiently many elements, then Bostan and Schost proved [BS05, Thm. 4] that one may achieve and by evaluating at geometric sequences. Thus, in this situation they obtain
(4) 
In the setting of integer coefficients, a popular evaluationinterpolation strategy is Chinese remaindering with respect to many small primes of bit length . Still assuming that , this yields the bound (see [Sto00, Lemma 1.7], for instance)
and recursive application of this bound yields
Comparing with the algebraic bound (4), we notice an extra factor of in the first term. This factor arises from the cost of computing a certain product tree (and remainder tree) in the Chinese remaindering algorithm.
A wellknown method that attempts to avoid the spurious
factor is to use FFTs. For example, suppose that we are using the
Schönhage–Strassen integer multiplication algorithm. This
works by cutting up the integers into into chunks of about bits, and then performs FFTs over a ring of the form where . We can multiply
integer matrices the same way, by cutting up each entry into chunks of
about bits, performing FFTs over , and then multiplying the matrices of Fourier
coefficients. When is much larger than , the latter step takes negligible time, and the bulk of
the time is spent performing FFTs. Since each matrix entry is only
transformed once, this leads to a bound of the type ,
without the extraneous factor. This method is
very efficient in practice; both [HS14] and
However, the theoretical question remains as to whether the overhead can be removed unconditionally, independently of the “internal structure” of the currently fastest algorithm for integer multiplication. Our Theorem 1 shows that this is indeed the case. More precisely, we reduce integer matrix multiplication to the multiplication of matrix polynomials over for a suitable prime power . The multiplication of such polynomials is done using FFTs. However, instead of using a classical algorithm for computing the FFT of an individual polynomial, we reduce this problem back to integer multiplication using Bluestein's trick [Blu70] and Kronecker substitution [vzGG03, Ch. 8]. This central idea of the paper will be explained in section 2. In section 3, we prove our main complexity bound (1).
We stress that Theorem 1 is a theoretical result, and we do not recommend our algorithm for practical computations. For any given FFTbased integer multiplication algorithm, it should always be better, by a constant factor, to apply the same FFT scheme to the matrix entries directly, as outlined above. See Remark 6 for further discussion about the implied big constant.
Remark
We begin with a lemma that converts a certain polynomial evaluation problem to integer multiplication.
Lemma
Proof. Let and let . We first use Bluestein's trick [Blu70] to convert the evaluation problem to a polynomial multiplication problem. Namely, from the identity we obtain
(5) 
where
Since and , we may easily compute and from and using ring operations in . Similarly we may obtain the from the using ring operations. The sum in (5) may be interpreted as the coefficient of in the product of the (Laurent) polynomials
Proposition
uniformly for all , with .
Proof. The input consists of matrices and , where and , , . We wish to compute the product .
Let and . Note that since we assumed that . We split the entries into chunks of bits, choosing so that with , and such that the coefficients of are bounded in absolute value by . Similarly choose for . Let and be the corresponding matrices of polynomials. The coefficients of the entries of are bounded in absolute value by , and thus have bit size bounded by . The product may be deduced from in time . Thus we have reduced to the problem of computing .
The degrees of the entries of are less than . Let be the least odd prime such that . By [BHP01] we have . We may find by testing candidates successively; the cost is , since each candidate requires bit operations [AKS04].
To compute , it suffices to compute modulo , where is the least positive integer for which . Since we have . Our plan is to compute over by means of an evaluationinterpolation scheme, using Lemma 3 for the evaluations. The lemma requires a precomputed element of order . To find , we first compute a generator of in (deterministic) time [Shp96], and then lift it to a suitable in time [vzGG03, Ch. 15]. This last bound lies in (one may check the cases and separately).
Having selected , and , we now apply Lemma 3 to each matrix entry to evaluate and for . This step takes time . Next we perform the pointwise multiplications . These are achieved by first lifting to integer matrix products, and then reducing the results modulo . The integer products cost . The bit size of the entries of the products are bounded by , so the reduction step costs . Since the evaluation is really a discrete Fourier transform over , the interpolation step is algebraically the same, with replaced by . Thus we may recover using Lemma 3 again, with cost . There is also a final division (scaling) by , whose cost is subsumed into the above.
Remark
Now we may prove the main theorem announced in the introduction.
Proof of Theorem 1. First consider the region . Proposition 4 yields
and for such we have , so the desired bound holds in this region.
Now consider the case . Let , and let for , so that and By Proposition 4 there is a constant (depending only on ) such that
for any . Starting with and iterating times yields
By the argument in the first paragraph, we may apply Proposition 4 once more (and increase if necessary) to obtain
The second term lies in . Since is increasing, the first term is bounded by
Remark
Theorem 1 shows that .
After some optimisations, it is possible to achieve . (We omit the details. The idea is to increase the chunk size , say from to , and use the fact that Bluestein's trick actually produces a negacyclic convolution.)
We can do even better if we change the basic problem slightly. Define to be the cost of an bit cyclic integer convolution, i.e., multiplication modulo . This kind of multiplication problem is of interest because all of the fastest known multiplication algorithms, i.e., based on FFTs, actually compute convolutions. (In this brief sketch we ignore the difficulty that such algorithms typically only work for belonging to some sparse set.) Let be the cost of the corresponding matrix multiplication (convolution) problem, and let be the corresponding constant defined as above. Then by mapping the Bluestein convolution directly to integer convolution, one saves a factor of two, obtaining .
We conjecture that in fact one can achieve . This conjecture can be proved for all integer multiplication algorithms known to the authors, and it is also consistent with measurements of the performance of the implementation described in [HS14, HLQ14]. The point is that the implementation transforms each matrix entry exactly once, and the time spent on the smallcoefficient matrix multiplications is negligible if is large.
Remark
where stands for the precision at our evaluation points and . In terms of and for some small fixed precision , we have
Reformulated in this way, our new evaluationinterpolation strategy achieves
and it can be applied to several other problems, such as the multiplication of multivariate polynomials or power series with large integer coefficients.
The authors thank Arne Storjohann for helpful conversations. The first author was supported by the Australian Research Council, DECRA Grant DE120101293.
[AKS04] Manindra Agrawal, Neeraj Kayal, and Nitin Saxena, PRIMES is in P, Ann. of Math. (2) 160 (2004), no. 2, 781–793. MR 2123939 (2006a:11170)
[BGS07] Alin Bostan, Pierrick Gaudry, and Éric Schost, Linear recurrences with polynomial coefficients and application to integer factorization and CartierManin operator, SIAM J. Comput. 36 (2007), no. 6, 1777–1806. MR 2299425 (2008a:11156)
[BHP01] R. C. Baker, G. Harman, and J. Pintz, The difference between consecutive primes. II, Proc. London Math. Soc. (3) 83 (2001), no. 3, 532–562. MR 1851081 (2002f:11125)
[Blu70] L. Bluestein, A linear filtering approach to the computation of discrete fourier transform, Audio and Electroacoustics, IEEE Transactions on 18 (1970), no. 4, 451–455.
[BS05] Alin Bostan and Éric Schost, Polynomial evaluation and interpolation on special sets of points, J. Complexity 21 (2005), no. 4, 420–446. MR 2152715 (2006g:12016)
[CC90] D.V. Chudnovsky and G.V. Chudnovsky, Computer algebra in the service of mathematical physics and number theory (computers in mathematics, stanford, ca, 1986), Lect. Notes in Pure and Applied Math. (NewYork), vol. 125, Dekker, 1990, pp. 109–232.
[CK91] D.G. Cantor and E. Kaltofen, On fast multiplication of polynomials over arbitrary algebras, Acta Informatica 28 (1991), 693–701.
[CW87] D. Coppersmith and S. Winograd, Matrix multiplication via arithmetic progressions, Proc. of the Annual Symposium on Theory of Computing (New York City), may 25–27 1987, pp. 1–6.
[Für09] Martin Fürer, Faster integer multiplication, SIAM J. Comput. 39 (2009), no. 3, 979–1005. MR 2538847 (2011b:68296)
[Gal14] François Le Gall, Powers of tensors and fast matrix multiplication, Proc. ISSAC 2014 (Kobe, Japan), July 23–25 2014, pp. 296–303.
[Har14] David Harvey, Counting points on hyperelliptic curves in average polynomial time, Ann. of Math. (2) 179 (2014), no. 2, 783–803.
[HHL14a] David Harvey, Joris van der Hoeven, and Grégoire Lecerf, Even faster integer multiplication, preprint http://arxiv.org/abs/1407.3360, 2014.
[HHL14b] –, Faster polynomial multiplication over finite fields, preprint http://arxiv.org/abs/1407.3361, 2014.
[HLM+02] J. van der Hoeven, G. Lecerf, B. Mourrain, et al., Mathemagix, 2002, http://www.mathemagix.org.
[HLQ14] J. van der Hoeven, G. Lecerf, and G. Quintin, Modular SIMD arithmetic in Mathemagix, Tech. report, ArXiv, 2014, http://arxiv.org/abs/1407.3383.
[Hoe99] J. van der Hoeven, Fast evaluation of holonomic functions, TCS 210 (1999), 199–215.
[Hoe01] –, Fast evaluation of holonomic functions near and in singularities, JSC 31 (2001), 717–743.
[Hoe04] –, The truncated Fourier transform and applications, Proc. ISSAC 2004 (Univ. of Cantabria, Santander, Spain) (J. Gutierrez, ed.), July 4–7 2004, pp. 290–296.
[Hoe07] –, Efficient accelerosummation of holonomic functions, JSC 42 (2007), no. 4, 389–428.
[Hoe10] –, Newton's method and FFT trading, JSC 45 (2010), no. 8, 857–878.
[HP97] B. Haible and T. Papanikolaou, Fast multipleprecision evaluation of elementary functions, Tech. Report TI7/97, Universität Darmstadt, 1997.
[HS14] David Harvey and Andrew V. Sutherland, Computing Hasse–Witt matrices of hyperelliptic curves in average polynomial time, Algorithmic Number Theory Eleventh International Symposium (ANTS XI), vol. 17, London Mathematical Society Journal of Computation and Mathematics, 2014, pp. 257–273.
[Pap94] Christos H. Papadimitriou, Computational complexity, AddisonWesley Publishing Company, Reading, MA, 1994. MR 1251285 (95f:68082)
[Shp96] Igor Shparlinski, On finding primitive roots in finite fields, Theoret. Comput. Sci. 157 (1996), no. 2, 273–275. MR 1389773 (97a:11203)
[SS71] A. Schönhage and V. Strassen, Schnelle Multiplikation grosser Zahlen, Computing (Arch. Elektron. Rechnen) 7 (1971), 281–292. MR 0292344 (45 #1431)
[Sto00] Arne Storjohann, Algorithms for matrix canonical forms, Ph.D. thesis, ETH Zürich, 2000, http://dx.doi.org/10.3929/ethza004141007.
[Str69] V. Strassen, Gaussian elimination is not optimal, Numer. Math. 13 (1969), 352–356.
[vzGG03] Joachim von zur Gathen and Jürgen Gerhard, Modern computer algebra, second ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2003. MR 2001757 (2004g:68202)